It is well known that Europe suffered a period of profound ignorance and calamity called the Dark Ages. What is not often discussed is how Europe came out of the Dark Ages and into the Renaissance (re-birth) period of profound knowledge, including artwork, music, science, mathematics and culture. What outside influence birthed such a prolific age of thinking and prosperity? The answer is the Moors, of North, West Africa who introduced mathematics, astronomy, botany, history, philosophy, jurisprudence, cuisine, the arts and irrigation into Europe, specifically Spain beginning around 711 A.D.
Millions of Moors lived in Europe but were most heavily concentrated in Spain and Portugal. And these Moors had status in society with some in the ranks of nobility. Naturally racial mixing occurred and it is known that the nobility of Europe have African origins including England, Germany and even bordering Russia. For example, the Queen of England – Charlotte Sophia, a German who descended from a Portuguese Royal House of Moors and married King George III. Queen Charlotte was clearly of mixed heritage had 15 children with King George III and she is the great-great grandmother of George VI.
For more information on the African ancestry of European nobility see Nature Knows No Color-Line by historian, Joel Augustus Rogers.